Bibliographic Citation - Part 3


When citing Journal Article, almost the same process is adopted except that the title of the article is not italicized or underlined or made bold; however this depends on the style adopted by the Researcher’s Supervisor, volume number and part number in parenthesis, month or season of the year, if appropriate and then page numbers of the article.


Fijabi, Ademola F. and Opeke, Rosaline O. (2001). An Appraisal of Information Dissemination Pattern of Women’s Research and Documentation Centre (WORDOC) Library. Journal of the Nigerian Library Association, 35(1) 33-41.


If it is a conference, the reference will be given in form of the name of the conference, Number of the conference, Date, location of the conference, date of publication, title of the published work, if different from the name of the conference (this must be italicized, underlined or made bold), place of publication, publisher and number of pages. A detailed example of such a conference is given by Aina (2001) thus:

Standing Conference of Eastern, Central and Southern African Librarians. 12th, 1996. Maseru (1998) Librarians and Information Services in the Twenty Century.

Maseliso Moshoeshoe-Chandzingwa, Albert K. Kakoma and Mampaila M. Lebotsa, eds. Maseru Lesotho Library Association, 398p. 

On the other hand, if an Author contributed a chapter in a conference proceeding the name of the Author of a first chapter will be taken as entry heading, then followed by date of publication, title of the chapter, then you insert “In” preceded by a colon, title of the collected work (should be italicized, boldened or Underlined), while the place of publication, publisher. pagination, of the section referred to. Chapters in books will follow the same process.

 Ubogu, F.N. (2006) Trends in Digital Library Services in Academic Libraries in South Africa: Library Portals and ETO System. In: Libraries: Dynamic Engines for the Knowledge and Information Society: Proceedings of the 44th Annual National Conference and AGM of the Nigerian Library Association, Abuja: Heinemann, pp. 1-38.


In the case of Unpublished Theses and Dissertations, the Author will be the Main Entry Heading, followed by Date of publication in brackets, Title (to be italicized, bolded or underlined), Type of Document (PhD Thesis, or Dissertation), and place of Publication if not clear from the institution and then the name of the Institution awarding the degree.

A. Example: 

Aliu, I.M. (2008) A Comparative Study of the Utilization Manual and Electronic Catalogues by Users of the University of Benin Library. MLIS Dissertation, Abia State University, Uturu.

In the case of Research Reports, the Referencing Style is: Author’s Name, Date of Publication in brackets, the Title should either (be italicized, underlined or bolded). Research report number, if available, Place of Publication, if any, and the Publisher.

B. Example:
Aina, L.0. and Moahi, K. (1998) A study of the Appropriateness of Curriculum to Professional Practice: A Tracer study of the Botswana Library School Products, Gaborone: Department of Library and Information Studies, University of Botswana


Referencing in the Internet follows almost the same format except for some very minor differences. In the case of Electronic Journals, the Author takes pre-eminence, followed by the Year of Publication, Title of the Article, Journal Title which must be (italicized, bolded or underlined) Type of Medium, e.g. Internet, Date of Publication, Volume Number (issue number) Pagination or Online equivalent, availability statement, that is quoting the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) date accessed.

Ubogu, EN. (2001) Spreading the ETO Gospel: A Southern Africa Perspective. International Information and Library Review Vol. 33, 249-259. Available at:

Rozmus, B. (2002):

“Australian Subject Gateways Forum: how the Australian subject gateways contribute to Internet use in learning, education and training”

Global Summit of Online Knowledge Networks, Adelaide.
Available at:

Note that when citing an Electronic Source, Aina (2001 ) advised that it is always better to have a copy of the material since it is known that Internet-Based Materials may be available only for a Short time on the web.

For archival materials, the citation-sequence system is usually utilized, in which the first Author cited is assigned the Arabic numeral.

The Arabic numerals are indicated in the superscript and the next consequent numerals for the subsequent citations. At the end of the page or end of the chapter of the document, all the citations will be arranged consecutively in order of citation.

The use of Ibid (Latin word for ditto instead of repeating the previous reference), and op. cit (Latin word for indicating that authors’ work has already been cited) is very common in archival referencing.


Omekwu and Atinmo (1998) studied the citation patterns of Agricultural Communication Scientists.


 Sources of information are those that have been processed or filtered, (e.g. Newspaper Reports, Biographies, see Balarabe and Jegede, 1996).

In the above case you give both Authors’ last/surname each time you refer to the source. Connect their names with “and” in the text; using an Ampersand (&) in the parenthetical citation.


In a case where a piece of work is coauthored possibly by three, four or five persons, provide all last names in the first reference to the source. Thereafter, cite only the first Author’s name followed by et. al.

A. Examples: 

Many Historical Studies have been conducted in Africa. Kaniki, Balarebi and Jegede (1996) discussed the administration of Arabic Archives in Nigeria.

If a source has more than four, six or more Authors, use only the first named Author’s last name followed by et. al each time that same source is cited.

B. Example: al.


When citing more than one document written by the same Author in a Parenthetical Reference, use the Author’s last Name only once and arrange the Years in their order as presented.


Many Historical Studies conducted discussed the Administration of Arabic Archives in Nigeria (Jegede, 1996, 2000). . .

Again, when an Author, or the same group of Co-Authors, have more than one work published in the same year, distinguish the works by adding the letters a, b, c, and so on, as needed, to the year. Give the last name only once, but repeat the year, each one with its identifying letter, thus:

Many historical studies conducted by (Jegede, 2000a, 2000b, 2000c) . . .

When citing several works by different Authors within the same parentheses, list the authors alphabetically; alphabetize by the first Author when citing co-authored works. Separate Authors or group of co-authors with semicolons; thus:

Many Historical Studies have been conducted (Akotia, 1999; Balarebi and Jegede, 2000; Kaniki and Mnjama, 2001; Sarah, 2002) to unravel the mystery.

That brings us to the end of this very series. I do believe you have learnt a lot. Thanks for reading.

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